Every math student collects knowledge gaps as they progress through school. Sometimes you don’t understand a concept when it gets taught, and the class moves on before you figure it out. Sometimes you get it, but since **the mastery path is a muddy slope, **you quickly forget. And some key pieces are, for whatever reason, never taught at all. This year, with limited schooling due to COVID, that final case is more common than ever.

And if you understand that **math is an upside-down pyramid, **then you know that knowledge gaps make a very unstable foundation for future learning. They increase the likelihood of getting confused, falling behind, and slipping into **a downward spiral of math avoidance. **So patching holes in your math knowledge is critical. But how do you do it?

What follows is a step-by-step process for identifying and filling knowledge gaps in mathematics.

**1. Identify**

Step one is to identify what you don’t know, back up to the earliest, easiest things that you don’t have mastered, and start from there. To do this, I recommend using **Khan Academy’s** course challenges. These are like miniature final exams for Khan’s math courses. There’s one for every grade. You can also take the unit tests that are at the end of each major subject within these math courses.

When you take a course challenge or a unit test, Khan keeps track of what you get right and what you get wrong. (You have to be logged in to your free account for this.) Then, when you scroll through the exercises of the course, each activity will have a little icon next to it that will have zero, one, two, or three purple bars filled in.

- Three purple bars represents
*mastery*: You’ve gotten it right several times and haven’t recently missed a question. - Two purple bars represents
*proficiency*: You’re approaching mastery. - One purple bar represents
*familiarity*: You’ve gotten a couple questions on this topic right, but you’ve also missed some questions, so this needs work. - Zero purple bars means you haven’t demonstrated any understanding of this topic.

Topics with zero or one purple bar are your knowledge gaps.

Let’s say you’re about to take high school geometry because you’ve just finished Algebra I. You might take the Algebra I course challenge. And if you have a pretty good memory of what you learned this year, you might miss only five or ten questions out of 30. If that’s the case, those five questions represent content areas for you to target. Go back into the course and work on them.

But if it doesn’t go so well, and you miss say, 15 or 20 out of the 30 questions, you probably need to back up further than Algebra I. Drop back to the Pre-algebra course challenge, or go back to the 5^{th} grade course challenge. Feel it out. Maybe you need to go *way* back and relearn your **math facts. **Maybe your **math comfort zone** is so small that the right move is to start at the beginning and work your way up.

I’ve worked with Algebra II students who didn’t know their multiplication facts. I’ve worked with calculus students who needed to relearn fractions. And I myself had to relearn subtraction with borrowing at the age of 27. It’s all okay. There’s no shame in not knowing something. You just need to identify what’s missing from your math knowledge so you can go get it.

**2. Understand**

Once you’ve identified your knowledge gaps, it’s time to get to work. The first milestone on **the mastery path **is achieving understanding. For this, Khan has videos for every topic. Watch them, and pause often to take notes and try things out yourself. If Khan’s videos aren’t sufficient to “get it,” there are numerous articles and videos online that teach math, along with **workbooks **and **textbooks**. And, of course, you can ask other people for help.

Being confused is normal. Work through it by using resources and **making written product.**

Once you think you understand, try the exercises. If you get stuck, consult your notes or use the hints provided with each problem. The hints walk through the questions step-by-step. And don’t just look at the solutions – write them out.

**3. Master**

After you achieve understanding and do an initial round of practice, you need to follow up on that with **spaced repetition **in order to solidify both your memory and your comprehension of the topic. Revisit this topic several times in the days after you learn it and then for several weeks after that.

Start with massed practice. For this, Khan isn’t the best choice. Worksheets are a better option. Do a quick google search for the topic plus the word “worksheet,” and you’ll find plenty of choices. Include the words “answer key” if you’re not immediately finding worksheets that come with answer keys. For high school math, **kutasoftware is great. **Hit print, and get to work. But don’t necessarily do the entire worksheet in one sitting. It’s better to do a little bit each day than to do it all at once and then ignore the topic for a week.

Repeat this process for several topics within a unit on Khan, and then take the associated quizzes and the unit test. These present you with a variety of problems, forcing you to remember which methods apply to which situations. This is called “interleaving,” and it is critical for advancing as a math student. Just remember that you don’t want to go straight to interleaving; it is **the combination of massed practice and interleaving** that cultivates deep mastery.

**Make Progress**

Patching holes in your math knowledge is hard work. So if you engage this process, and you discover that you have many knowledge gaps, you might be disheartened. But please don’t see this as an all-or-nothing endeavor. Any holes you patch will make your life as a math student easier. Any progress you make here is worthwhile. **Everything counts.**

Chris Loper has been working as a tutor and academic coach since 2014, racking up over 10,000 hours of experience supporting students.

Along with Greg Smith, Chris is the cocreator of **Parenting for Academic Success (and Parental Sanity)** – a five-part course offered every summer.

Chris writes the popular self-improvement blog **Becoming Better**, where he also offers **habit coaching**, helping busy adults with habit formation and productivity.

Chris’s most recent endeavor combines his academic and habit-formation expertise to help students thrive in college. Visit **SmartCollegeHabits.com** to learn more.

In 2021, he published a humorous memoir titled *Wood Floats and Other Brilliant Observations*, a book that blends crazy stories with practical life lessons, available on Amazon and through most local bookstores.

He lives in Issaquah, WA where he is the owner of **South Cove Tutoring**.